Sunday, July 5, 2009

Gantt Chart

A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. Gantt, an American engineer and social scientist. Frequently used in project management, a Gantt chart provides a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan, coordinate, and track specific tasks in a project.

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e, precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here.

Although now regarded as a common charting technique, Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when they were introduced. In recognition of Henry Gantt's contributions, the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal is awarded for distinguished achievement in management and in community service. This chart is used also in Information Technology to represent data that has been collected.


Saturday, July 4, 2009

Word Breakdown Structure

work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements (or tasks) in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project.

A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager.

The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective; for example a program, project, and contract. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with :

  • the end objective and
  • successively subdividing it into manageable components
  • in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, subtasks, and work packages)
  • which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.


S-curve

In the innovation management field the S-Curve illustrates the introduction, growth and maturation of innovations as well as the technological cycles that most industries experience. In the early stages large amounts of money, effort and other resources are expended on the new technology but small performance improvements are observed. Then, as the knowledge about the technology accumulates, progress becomes more rapid. As soon as major technical obstacles are overcome and the innovation reaches a certain adoption level an exponential growth will take place. During this phase relatively small increments of effort and resources will result in large performance gains. Finally, as the technology starts to approach its physical limit, further pushing the performance becomes increasingly difficult, as the figure below shows.





CPM


Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or Critical Path Analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. It is an important tool for effective project management.

Originally, the critical path method considered only logical dependencies between terminal elements. Since then, it has been expanded to allow for the inclusion of resources related to each activity, through processes called activity-based resource assignments and resource leveling. A resource-leveled schedule may include delays due to resource bottlenecks (i.e., unavailability of a resource at the required time), and may cause a previously shorter path to become the longest or most "resource critical" path. A related concept is called the critical chain, which attempts to protect activity and project durations from unforeseen delays due to resource constraints.

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Is Glutathione safe in the liver?

Yes.
“ the levels of glutathione in the liver is critically linked to the liver’s ability to detoxify. The higher the
glutathione content, the greater the liver’s capacity to detoxify harmful chemicals. Typically, when we are
exposed to chemicals to which can damage the liver including alcohol, the concentration of glutathione
in the liver is substantially reduced. This reduction makes the liver susceptible to damage.

Monday, June 1, 2009

How to Make Glutathione Naturally Within the Body

There are several ways a body can manufacture glutathione. It is true it takes 3 amino acids for the body to manufacture glutathione but our bodies can take food, turn the foods into the substance to manufacture the 3 needed amino acids needed to manufacture glutathione. This is also the natural method for a body to create glutathione.

As an example, asparagus and watermelon will make glutathione.

With all of the breaking news regarding glutathione as an antioxidant as well as part of the reason for the development of autism, many supplements are suddenly jumping on the glutathione bandwagon.

Glutathione is not new to this Web Site. We have been recommending glutathione for the past 10 years to assist individuals to taper off psychotropic medications.

One thing that has been overlooked by many still is the role of glutathione within the liver as well as the role of glutathione transporting a toxin to the liver. There is considerable more to glutathione than having it in the cells.

The whey proteins mentioned on this site do make intracellular glutathione. However, like most other things in life, not all things are equal.

When you need intracellular glutathione quickly, the best method and safest method is with a whey protein. We have reviewed the top selling whey proteins. One whey protein stands so far above all others it is amazing.

Additional Glutathione Information

The non-essential amino acid homocysteine is produced in the body with the metabolism of the amino acid methionine.

Homocysteine is usually broken down into the amino acid cysteine. Cysteine is one of the amino acids needed by the cells to make intracellular glutathione. If your body does not convert homocysteine to cysteine the intracellular glutathione conversion will not take place.

The rapid conversion of homocysteine is critical. If conversion takes place too slow, homocysteine will accumulate in the body and damage cell membranes, damage blood vessels, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis.

Rapid conversion of homocysteine requires an individual to have adequate amount of vitamin B6, B12, and folate. Over 50% of the population in the world has a genetic defect in the pathway needed to metabolize B6, B12, and folate.

Sunday, May 31, 2009

Function of glutathione

Glutathione exists in reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) states. In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e-) to other unstable molecules, such as reactive oxygen species. In donating an electron, glutathione itself becomes reactive, but readily reacts with another reactive glutathione to form glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Such a reaction is possible due to the relatively high concentration of glutathione in cells (up to 5 mM in the liver). GSH can be regenerated from GSSG by the enzyme glutathione reductase.

In healthy cells and tissue, more than 90% of the total glutathione pool is in the reduced form (GSH) and less than 10% exists in the disulfide form (GSSG). An increased GSSG-to-GSH ratio is considered indicative of oxidative stress.

GSH is known as a substrate in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is also capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as in the case of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450-reactive metabolite formed by paracetamol (or acetaminophen as it is known in the US), that becomes toxic when GSH is depleted by an overdose of acetaminophen.

How does Glutathione make Skin whiter?

In order to achieve the whitening "side effect" of Glutathione, dose must be doubled (20-40mg/Kg Body
weight per day divided into 2-3 doses). This is the main reason why glutathione helps in whitening
skin. In Asia, oral glutathione is also referred to as skin whitening capsule, whitening pill, bleaching
pill, or skin whitener that were proven to be very safe and effective.

Why is Glutathione Important to Health?

It is a very powerful anti-oxidant that protects the body by targeting & destroying reactive oxygen
molecules & free radicals. It is found in high concentration in the liver, where it binds to heavy metals
such as mercury & lead, chemical pollutants, & carcinogens and transforms them into form that can
easily flushed out of the body via enzymatic pathway.

It enhances the body’s immune response. Studies have shown depleted levels of gluthatione are
associated with enhanced toxicity & weakend immune system.

According to Journal of Immunology, “ …Immune depressed individuals have lower Glutathione levels
when fighting disease. Lymphocytes, cells vital for your immune response depends on GSH for their
proper function & replication. Glutathione is crucial to the function & multiplication of these disease
fighting cells, in order to ward off invading viruses, bacteria & parasites. Restoring glutathione levels to
those found in healthy people is likely to help immune deficient person.

Wednesday, May 27, 2009

How Should Glutathione Be Taken?

Glutathione is probably not well absorbed into the body when taken by mouth. One way to get around that is to take it by vein. A more practical solution is to take the precursors -- that is, the molecules the body needs to make glutathione -- rather than glutathione itself. While there is no solid proof this works, the consensus among experts is that that doing so will increase the amount of glutathione in the cells.

What Does Glutathione Do?

The strong antioxidant effect of glutathione helps keep cells running smoothly. Bounous and another glutathione expert, Jeremy Appleton, ND, say it also helps the liver remove chemicals that are foreign to the body, such as drugs and pollutants.

Appleton is chairman of the department of nutrition at the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland, Ore., and senior science editor for Healthnotes, a database on complementary and alternative medicine available at newspaper stands and health food stores.

Evidence for the important role that glutathione plays in health comes from studies in people who are severely ill.

"If you look in a hospital situation at people who have cancer, AIDS, or other very serious disease, almost invariably they are depleted in glutathione," says Appleton. "The reasons for this are not completely understood, but we do know that glutathione is extremely important for maintaining intracellular health."

glutathione

Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. It contains an unusual peptide linkage between the amine group of cysteine and the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain. Glutathione, an antioxidant, protects cells from toxins such as free radicals.

Thiol groups are kept in a reduced state at a concentration of approximately ~5 mM in animal cells. In effect, glutathione reduces any disulfide bond formed within cytoplasmic proteins to cysteines by acting as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Glutathione is found almost exclusively in its reduced form, since the enzyme that reverts it from its oxidized form, glutathione reductase, is constitutively active and inducible upon oxidative stress. In fact, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is often used scientifically as a measure of cellular toxicity.

Monday, April 20, 2009

LucEnA citY

The City of Lucena (Filipino: Lunsod ng Lucena) is a first class highly urbanized medium sized city in the province of Quezon, Philippines. It is the capital city of Quezon and belongs to the 25 most competitive cities of the Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 236,390 people in 45,902 households. Nearby towns of Lucena are Pagbilao (east), Tayabas (north) and Sariaya (west).


History

Lucena City was originally a barrio of Tayabas town, then the capital of the Province of Tayabas (now Quezon) which was explored by Captain Juan de Salcedo in 1571 & 1572. The town was founded by the Franciscan fathers, Juan de Plasencia & Diego de Oropesa between 1580 & 1583.

It was then called by the Spaniards "Buenavista" (beautiful scenic spots) because of its awe-inspiring scenic beauty.

It was then changed to "Oroquieta" in honor of the Spanish Gov-Gen. Oroquieta. Then in the 17th Century it was changed to "Cotta" meaning a strong fort because forts or cottas were built to defend it from Muslim piratical raids. Spanish records mention the existence of cottas (Tagalog: kuta) along the coast of Lucena, particularly in Cotta itself and in the Barrio of Mayao, though these structures are no longer extant. Finally, on November 5, 1897, pursuant to an Orden Real Superior Civil, the community was named "Lucena." It became an independent municipality on June 1, 1882, coinciding with the growth of local maritime trade facilitated in the Cotta port and with the final defeat of Moro pirates plying the Luzon and Visayan waters.

Popular knowledge attribute the origin of the name "Lucena" to the town of Lucena, Andalucia where the late Reverend Mariano Granja, the Franciscan pioneer parish priest was said to have earlier served (some even say that he was from this town). But according to the monumental work (Catalogo Biografico de los Religiosos Franciscanos de la Provincia de San Gregorio Magno de Filipinas), of a fellow Franciscan, Eusebio Gomez Platero, Fr. Granja was born in Paredes de Nava, diocese of Palencia, distant from Andalucia. Records also show that he had no previous post as priest of Lucena, Andalucia.

During the Philippine Revolution in 1896, the captain municipal of Lucena, Jose Zaballero, led the local revolutionaries. However, the local revolutionary government was organized by Manuel Argüelles, with José Barcelona as president. After the declaration of Philippine Independence, Gen. Malvar took over Tayabas Province on Aug. 15, 1898. Don Crisanto Marquez was elected municipal president during the first elections.

Lucena was the site of bloody struggles at the outbreak of the Filipino-American War in 1899. Upon the establishment of a civil government in the Province of Tayabas by the Americans on March 12, 1901, Lucena was made capital of the province after a bitter debate between Tayabas-born and Lucena-based officials. The decision to make Lucena as capital was primarily based on its strategic location. Unlike the former capital town (Tayabas), Lucena has access to the sea.

During WW II, Lucena was not spared from the grim realities of war at the hands of the Japanese who occupied the city on Dec. 27, 1941. Fortunately, however, the city was not devastated by the war. The Hunter ROTC guerillas succeeded in driving out the Japanese on January 25, 1945. Quezon Province was formally liberated by joint Filipino & American troops on April 4, 1945.

On June 17, 1961 by virtue of Republic Act No. 3271, sponsored by Cong. Manuel S. Enverga & Cong. Pascual Espinosa, Lucena became a chartered city. The City of Lucena was inaugurated on Aug. 20, 1962 after the occasion of the 84th birth anniversary of the late Pres. Manuel L. Quezon during Aug. 19.

Today Lucena is home to a population of 220,834 people (as of 2005) and is fast flourishing as an urban community and planning to build an Economic Zone.


Friday, April 17, 2009

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

SEM

Search engine marketing, or SEM, is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs). According to the Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization, SEM methods include: search engine optimization (or SEO), paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion. Other sources, including the New York Times, define SEM as the practice of buying paid search listings.

SEO

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Typically, the earlier a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work and what people search for. Optimizing a website primarily involves editing its content and HTML coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.

The acronym "SEO" can also refer to "search engine optimizers," a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients, and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site, SEO tactics may be incorporated into web site development and design. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe web site designs, menus, content management systems and shopping carts that are easy to optimize.

Another class of techniques, known as black hat SEO or Spamdexing, use methods such as link farms and keyword stuffing that degrade both the relevance of search results and the user-experience of search engines. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices.

7101 IsLaNds

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